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更多>>海地共和国国家简介

海地共和国
海地位于加勒比海北部,印第安语意为“多山的地方”,是加勒比海上的一个岛国。该国的黑人占95%,因此有“黑人共和国”之称。居民多信奉天主教。官方语言为法语和克里奥尔语,90%居民使用克里奥尔语。首都太子港(Port—au—Prince)。1804年1月1日宣告独立,取国名海地,是世界上第一个独立的黑人国家。海地是世界上最为贫困的国家之一,经济以农业为主,基础设施建设非常落后。另外,由于能源不足,海地的工业非常不发达,失业率也极高,三分之二的工人没有固定的工作。美国是海地最大的援助国,95-99年间向海地提供了8.84亿美元的援助。国旗  呈长方形,长与宽之比为5:3。由两个平行相等的横长方形组。

海地共和国国家属性

  • 中文名称: 海地共和国
    英文名称: The Republic of Haiti
    英文简称: HTI
    所属洲: 美洲
    首都: 太子港
    主要城市: 太子港,兰贝,等
  • 货币: 古德
    人口数量: 9,719,932
    国家代码: HTI
    国土面积: 27,750平方公里
    汇率: 1海地古德=0.1481人民币
    国际域名缩写: .HTI

更多>>海地共和国英文简介

Haiti is located in the northern Caribbean, the Indian word meaning "mountainous place, is an island nation in the Caribbean. Blacks accounted for 95% of the country, the so called "black republic". Residents are Catholic. The official language is French and Creole, 90% of residents use Creole. The capital of Port-au-Prince (Port-au-Prince). Declaration of independence on January 1, 1804, to take the name of the country of Haiti, is the world's first independent black nation. Haiti is one of the poorest countries in the world economy is dominated by agriculture, infrastructure construction is very backward. In addition, due to the lack of energy, Haiti's industry is very developed, the unemployment rate is also very high, two-thirds of workers do not have regular jobs. The United States is Haiti's largest donor countries 95-99 years $ 884 million in aid to Haiti.
National flag
Rectangular, long and wide ratio of 5:3. By the equivalent of two parallel horizontal rectangle on blue under red. The center of the face of the flag is a white rectangle, which painted with the national emblem. The colors of the Haitian flag from the French flag. Inlaid national emblem of the flag is the official flag.
National emblem
    
Pattern intermediate towering palm tree, a tree stuck in a "Freedom pole, the top of a pole is" freedom cap. Side drums of war on the green space in front of the tree and the Tomahawk, artillery and other weapons on the sides; tree on each side of the three sides of the Haitian flag and side pennant; tree after six with a bayonet rifle. French white sash that read "Unity is strength."
Population
Total population of 10,033,000 (2009), mainly blacks, about 95%, 5% mulatto race and white descent, the population density in the Latin American countries in the first place. The official language is French and Creole (African and French creole), 90% of residents Universal Creole. Roman Catholic residents accounted for 80%, profess the Protestant accounted for 16%, the rest believe Jesus taught and voodoo. The rural prevalence voodoo.
Natural
West Indies island. Located in the northern part of Latin America, the Caribbean island of Hispaniola (Haiti Island), the western half of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola (Haiti Island) west, an area of ​​about 27,797 square kilometers. East of the Dominican Republic, across the sea south of the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, west of Cuba and Jamaica. The coastline of over 1080 km. 75% of the whole territory of the mountain, only a narrow coastal and riverine plains, Haiti term is the Indian word "mountainous country" mean. LaSalle Mountains 2680 meters above sea level, is the highest peak in the country. The Gonaives Island as the country's largest island, with an area of ​​about 207 square kilometers. The largest lakes for Ethan Saudi Matt Hu, an area of ​​approximately 181 square kilometers. Artibonite River is the main river of the territory, the valley is Haiti important agricultural areas.
 
The northern tropical rainforest climate, the southern savannah climate. The monthly average temperature between 22-28 ℃. Annual rainfall of about 1000 mm, 4-June 8-October rainy season. Multiple hurricanes. Hot coastal areas, a plateau average temperature of 15 ° C. The national average temperature of 24-27 ° C. Haiti one year sub-seasons: a relatively hot from March to November, December to February are cooler. Different climate provides favorable conditions for the growth of plants.
 
The Haitian native species is rich in natural resources, South America witchcraft heritage of the land.
Political
Form of government
Haiti is Latin America, the earliest of colonial rule, achieved political independence of the country, is also the world's first independent black republic. The new Constitution, adopted in 1987 stipulates that the president by the democratically elected for a term of 5 years. President as head of state and head of government, has executive power. Parliament for the national legislature. Cabinet government administrative agencies, and work to help the President by the Prime Minister and members of the Cabinet. The current constitution of the Constitution through March 29, 1987, to suspend the operation from June 1988 to March 1989. Few provisions were subsequently annulled. In October 1994, the restoration of Haiti's legal system. Constitution weakened presidential powers to strengthen the independence of Parliament, to ensure that the principle of separation of powers and decentralization. The president and the government headed by Prime Minister share executive powers, and the government is responsible to Parliament, and Parliament has the sole power to impeach the government. The National Assembly is the legislative body. Judiciary by the Supreme Court, Court of Appeal, the Court of First Instance, the Magistrates Court and the Special Court. The incumbent President of the Supreme Court, Boniface Alexandre (Boniface Alexandre), took office in 2001 for a term of 10 years. In addition, the Supreme Court has two, vice president and 10 judges.
Constitution
Provisions: Haiti is indivisible, sovereign, independent, cooperative, free, democratic and social Republic; separation of powers is a sacred principle; national primary ownership of all citizens; citizens can direct election of the President of the Republic, a member of the legislative body, as well as in accordance with the Constitution with the legal provisions of all other members of the Authority and representatives of the National Assembly; freedom of religious belief, before the law of equality; presidential term of five years and may be re-elected, and the term of up to two terms; executive power by the president, prime minister and both houses of parliament Share ; government is responsible to the parliament, the parliament has the sole power to impeach the government. To amend the Constitution shall be subject to the consent of 2/3 members of the Senate and House of Representatives each.
Parliament
The Haiti National Assembly divided Senate and the House. Members directly elected by the citizens, Senator term of 2-6 years, the House of Representatives a term of four years, may be re-elected. Vice President for a term of two years, he served as the Speaker of the National Assembly; House Speaker 1-year term, he served as Vice Speaker of the National Assembly.
Political party
Sea National Committee in August 1986 decree stipulates that create a number of legal political parties should not be less than 20 people, supporters of not less than 2,000 people. Sea legal political parties in more than 100 are: (1) hope that the platform party: referred to as the hope that the party is to participate in the 2006 election set up by the sea former President Rene Preval, to absorb part of the former ruling party, Fanmi Lavalas members. In February 2006, Preval was elected the new president of the Sea, the party became the ruling party. (2) Social Democratic Party of Haiti: April 2005 by the nationalist revolution Progressive Party, the democracy movement National Committee "and" Haiti excellence "three-party merger. (3) People's struggle Organization: February 1991 established the original 名拉瓦拉斯 organization, after change 名拉瓦拉斯 political organization. Aristide was important to support forces, and later internal divisions. From 1995 to 2000, became the ruling party. In January 1997, changed its name to the struggle of the people in organizations. (4) the Lavalas House: Lavalas, from 2000 to 2004 for the ruling party. Created by Aristide in 1996, claiming to represent the interests of the middle and lower class. Currently, the party's principal leaders of the deep is imprisoned or in exile, the strength has been severely weakened. (5) to create a democratic movement in Haiti: Established in 1986, allied with Lavalas in the 2006 general election.
Economic
System
Is the world's most developed countries, one of the Western Hemisphere, the Least Developed Countries, dominated by agriculture, the agricultural population accounts for 80% of the employed population in the country. Bauxite, gold, silver, copper, iron and other mineral deposits. Large bauxite reserves of about 12 million tons. Also some forestry resources. Haiti is one of the world's poorest countries, 75% of the people live in abject poverty, only about 20% of the country's inhabitants can be used on the tap water, the illiteracy rate was as high as 80%.
Industry
The foundation is very weak. In recent years, despite the government vigorously encourage foreign and private investment, domestic disorder, hydropower communications infrastructure is seriously lagging behind so that investors stay away. In 2000, the industrial output growth rate of 1.74%, accounting for 21.36% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Manufacturing industry accounted for 7.5%, the construction industry accounted for 13.9%. Processing industry and housing and public works in varying degrees of growth, but the hydropower industry have declined due to insufficient investment and a rise in oil prices and other reasons.
Agriculture
Although rural Haiti mainly mountainous, lack of arable land, the yields are low, but agriculture is still the main economic sectors in Haiti, nearly 2/3 of the population engaged in agricultural production. Because of poor infrastructure, poor farming techniques, food insufficiency, the annual cost of over 200 million US dollars of foreign exchange to import food. Arable land area of ​​555,000 hectares, of which 125,000 hectares is irrigated land, but only half of those in the irrigation system, therefore, the main objectives of agricultural development in recent years is the expansion of irrigated area. In addition, there is a little plantations, accounting for about 10% of the arable land, mostly operated by the U.S. company coffee and sisal. Due to population pressure, resulting in a production to gradually shift from the production of traditional cash crops such as coffee, sisal, sugar, cocoa crops, such as rice, maize, sorghum, millet and soybeans.
 
In 2000, due to the long-term widespread drought and pests, agricultural negative growth, the gross national product accounts for about 22.48%.
Tertiary industry
Including services, commerce, catering industry, tourism and transport telecommunications industry. The annual growth rate of 1.41% in 2000, accounting for 45.4% of gross domestic product (GDP).
 
The income from tourism is one of the main sources of foreign exchange. Since the 1991 coup in Haiti, the number of tourists to drop from 1988 to 1989, nearly 150,000 people annually, from 1992 to 1993, only 40,000 people. The government in recent years in the area of ​​tourism reform, statistics ,99-00 financial year has more than 15 million tourists. 1996 843 standard rooms, was reduced to 493 in 1999.
Currency
Currency Goode (Gourde). The exchange rate was 39.75 gourdes per U.S. dollar (2009).
Trading
The main trade partners of the United States, and was followed by Canada, the European Community and Brazil, Argentina and other Latin American countries. Imports of food, oil, grease, chemical products, machinery, vehicles, etc.; major exports such as coffee, cocoa, essential oils, sugar, sisal. Haiti by bilateral aid in 1990, $ 117.3 million (including 050 million in the United States), was multilateral economic assistance of $ 071.9 million (013 million of which IDA provided).

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更多>>海地共和国官方语言

    法文(又称法语)属于印欧语系罗曼语族,罗曼语族包括中部罗曼语(法语、意大利语、萨丁岛(Sardinia)方言、加泰罗尼亚(Catalunya)语等)、西部罗曼语(西班牙语、葡萄牙语等)与东部罗曼语(罗马尼亚语等)。是继西班牙文之后,使用者人数最多的罗曼语言之一。现时全世界有8700万人把它作为母语,以及其他1.9亿人使用它(包括把它作为第二语言的人)。法文是很多地区或组织的官方语言(例如联合国、欧洲联盟)。法国法语和加拿大法语是世界上两大法语分支,它们之间有很大区别。
语言概述
  法语是一种表音的文字,单词的含义大多是通过词根和词缀的组合来表达的。这一点就和我们的中文有着明显的不同。
历史渊源
  虽然很多法国人认为他们是高卢人(les gaulois)的后裔,但是今天似乎只有很少的凯尔特人的影响保留在法国人中。很多的词汇是来源于拉丁文或日耳曼语言。
   公元4世纪,罗马帝国统治法国,拉丁文开始在法国流行。至公元5世纪,拉丁文已经广泛取代了原先通行于法国的凯尔特语。在高卢境内,随着罗马移民的增加,高卢人与之使用的通用拉丁语融合成为大众拉丁语(le latin vulgaire),与此同时,作为上层文人使用的书面拉丁文开始衰退。公元5世纪,高卢境内的说拉丁语的早先居民,与随着民族大迁徙进入高卢的讲日耳曼语的法兰克人的语言开始融合。法语开始失去非重音音节。公元6-7世纪,大众语变为一种混合性语言(un langage composite)。公元8世纪,查理曼帝国的建立开始使得法文开始规范化。到公元9世纪,拉丁语和日耳曼语最终融合成罗曼语。从公元939年卡佩王朝开始,法文成为法国唯一的官方语言。近代法语的前身是通俗拉丁语演变而来的高卢-罗曼语。
背景介绍
  开始的时候,在今天的法国领土上有很多不同的方言,但是后来巴黎附近地区的方言Ile-de-France取代了其他的方言并成为了现代法语官方语言的基础。而南方经济由于发展比较落后以及历史上的分隔,至今仍存在很多方言,如马尔舍方言、上朗格多克方言、下朗格多克方言、利木赞方言、上奥佛尼方言、下奥佛尼方言、加斯克尼方言和普罗旺斯方言。
   法语的方言除了以上列举的几种方言以外,法语的其它主要方言包括瓦隆方言( Walloon,主要分布在比利时)、皮克第方言、诺曼方言(Normandy)、洛林方言(Lorraine)、香槟方言、安茹方言( Angerin)、勃艮第方言(Burgundy)
地理分布
  法文是下列国家的第一语言:法国(六千万人使用,包括瓜德罗普岛、马提尼克岛和圣皮埃尔和密克隆) 加拿大(6,700,000使用者,特别是魁北克、新不伦瑞克) 比利时(4,000,000使用者,瓦龙语是Langue d'Oil语的一种方言,与比利时法语有显著的差异) 瑞士(跟德文(German)﹐意大利文(Italian)和罗曼文四文共行) 摩纳哥法属圭亚那(Guyane française) 海地
    同时法文也是下列国家的主要第二语言:阿尔及利亚、黎巴嫩、毛里求斯、摩洛哥、新喀里多尼亚、留尼汪和突尼斯。它在下列国家是官方语言,也是学校唯一使用的语言:科摩罗、刚果共和国、法属波利尼西亚、加蓬和马里。它在下列国家是官方语言,但是没有当地语那么常用:贝宁、布基纳法索、布隆迪、喀麦隆、中非共和国、乍得、科特迪瓦、几内亚、马达加斯加、尼日尔、卢旺达、塞内加尔、塞舌尔、多哥、瓦努阿图和刚果民主共和国。它在安道尔和卢森堡也是一种普遍的语言。另外,在埃及、印度的本地治里(Pondicherry)、意大利(Vallée d'Aoste)、老挝、毛利塔尼亚、英国(汊河岛,海峡群岛)、美国(阿卡迪亚,Cajun)和越南也有一些法语使用者。La Francophonie是一个国际法语使用者和非法语使用国家和政府组织。法国人一直对自己的语言非常自豪。殖民地时期,大英帝国将英文带到广大殖民地;而在二战后,强大的美国继续在世界各地传播英语,使法语的地位持续下降。法国人对此十分不忿,在力所能及的地方全力抗击英语文化势力。尽管如此,法语也在各个方面不同程度受到了英语的冲击。

   克里奥尔语(Creole Language),是指一种混合多种语言词汇,有时也掺杂一些其他语言文法的一种语言,这个词是用以泛指所有的“混合语”。
简介   
    克里奥尔(Creole)一词原意是“混合”,泛指世界上那些由葡萄牙语、英语、法语以及非洲语言混合并简化而生的语言,美国南部、加勒比地区以及西非的一些地方所说的语言也都统称为克里奥尔语,有些克里奥尔语以英语为基础,而塞舌尔的克里奥尔语则更多的采用法语单词。说这些语言的克里奥尔人,通常也是经过多代混血的,他们可能同时拥有来自非欧亚三大陆的血统。
   塞舌尔人是典型的克里奥尔人,在市中心的独立大道上矗立着一座三只飞翔的海鸥雕塑,象征着塞舌尔人民来自欧、亚、非三大洲。
成因
  克里奥尔语是由皮钦语所演变而来的,因为这些人说着不同的语言,为了沟通,而会发展出一种称之为“洋泾浜(皮钦语)”的沟通方式,而这种沟通方式通常没有文法可言,而若这些操不同语言的人因为种种因素而长期定居,他们的子女在缺乏可供参考的文法的情况下,会自行将皮钦语加上文法,因而产生克里奥尔语。
特征
  尽管各地的克里奥尔语的单词不尽相同。但是彼此之间的语法往往有相似之处。
   交际语、洋泾浜语和克里奥尔语这三个概念容易混淆。从语言学角度来看,交际语是一种多语接触区各语种社区通用的语言,它有可能是一种自然语言,也可能是一个混杂语,洋泾浜语是由一个上层语言(superstrate)和一个或多个下层语言(substrates)混合而成的混杂语言,它不够完善、功能有限,不是任何一个语言社区的母语。克里奥尔语是洋泾浜语基础上发展起来的较完备的语言,它能覆盖一切生活中需要表达的现象,是洋泾浜语使用者后代的母语。
使用人群
  克里奥尔人(Creole )这个名称在16∼18世纪时本来是指生于美洲而双亲是西班牙人的白种人,以区别于生于西班牙而迁往美洲的移民。
   在拉丁美洲的不同地区,克里奥尔人一词有各种涵义︰它可指当地出生的属于纯西班牙人血统的人;也可专指殖民时期在当地安家的西班牙名门望族的後裔;或仅指城市欧化居民,以与农村的印第安人相区别。在秘鲁这类国家,“克里奥尔”这个形容词专描绘一种精神饱满的生活作风。“克里奥尔”一词还有一些特殊涵义︰在西印度群岛,它是地方黑人土话的别名,诸如英语克里奥尔语、法语克里奥尔语或荷兰语克里奥尔语,用这些土话所表达的谚语或诗歌(如︰“克里奥尔格言”),亦属此类。在路易斯安那州,“克里奥尔”还指一种地方风味的烹调法,采用稻米、秋葵、番茄、胡椒、海味等。

更多>>海地共和国首都简介基本

   太子港(PORT-AU-PRINCE)是海地共和国的首都及政治、经济、文化中心和第一大港市。位于戈纳夫湾东南岸附近的库尔德萨克平原上。人口约51万。1804年为海地首都。海地工业中心,工业主要有制糖、水泥、纺织、面粉、酿酒、制皂、制药、制鞋、服装等。港口为一天然良港,吞吐量占全国进出口物资的60%~70%。建有国际机场,设有国际航线通加勒比海诸岛,为交通枢纽。
太子港简介
    太子港,是海地共和国的首都及政治、经济及文化中心,也是海地最大城市、西印度群岛著名良港之一。太子港位于加勒比海伊斯帕尼奥拉岛西部、戈纳夫湾东南岸、拉萨尔山麓、库尔德萨克平原与大海的交接处,面朝戈纳夫岛。海地是拉丁美洲最穷的国家,也是世界上最不发达的国家之一。太子港作为全国工艺中心,有制糖、碾米、水泥、制药、制鞋及服装等工业,但是工业几乎被美国为主的外国资本所控制。旅游业收入是外汇主要来源之一,游客大部分是美国和加拿大人。港口距机场约40分钟的车程,有定期的国际和国内航班。
重要作用
  太子港是全国的文化中心,集中了全国重要的图书馆、博物馆及其它文化设施。有1940年建立的国家图书馆,联合国教科文组织资助的国家资料中心,1938年建立的国家博物馆、考古博物馆、现代艺术博物馆,以及1944年建立的艺术中心。
   太子港的工业区向北切入库尔德萨克平原,是全国惟一的工业基地,有制糖、碾米、水泥、剑麻加工、制鞋、服装、体育用品等厂家,其中棒球产量居世界首位。
   太子港是全国的主要港口,全国对外贸易额的70%和占出口值40%的咖啡由此出口。太子港还有一个现代化的国际机场,5000多公里长的公路,主要是从太子港通往全国各地。太子港市区和郊区之间的主要交通工具是“达普-达普”车。“达普-达普”原意为“迅速”,每辆车上绘有各不相同的山水、神话、体育等图案,以画的优劣吸引乘客,并经常更换。港区主要码头泊位有4个,岸线长973m,最大水深为9.7m。装卸设备有可移式吊、集装箱吊、拖船及滚装设施等,其中集装箱吊最大起重能力为30吨,拖船的功率最大为147OkW。码头最大可靠长250m的船舶。装卸效率:杂货每小时约15吨,重货每小时约25吨。大船锚地水深达32m。主要出口货物为铝土矿砂、糖、咖啡、剑麻、水泥及香料等,进口货物主要有食品、石油、车辆、机械及化工产品等。主要贸易对象为美国,贸易额占其外贸易总额的1/2.其它还有加拿大、英国、法国及日本等国。
太子港特色
  太子港曾于1794年、1820年、1888年和2010年四次遭受地震、飓风和战火破坏,发展缓慢。城市的建筑为圆梯形,由低处向山坡上伸展。城市街道狭窄,港口商业区街呈拱式,通往东面广阔练兵场的道路曲折迂回。地势较低的闹市区周围和工厂附近,是一般黑人和工人的住宅区,简陋拥挤。在山坡上,被浓密树荫和缤纷鲜花包围的小楼、别墅,舒适考究,是富裕人的住所。市中心"独立英雄广场"是为纪念在19世纪初海地人民武装起义中英勇献身的英烈而建,中央有一座高大的独立战争英雄纪念碑,四周花坛内鲜花争艳,绿草如茵。市内主要的建筑和古迹有:国家宫、新大教堂、政府大厦、最高法院、圣安娜教堂、圣何塞教堂、圣弗朗西斯科教堂、圣安东尼奥教堂和圣阿莱霍医院。
最近情况
  太子港时间2010年1月12日下午,海地发生强烈地震,造成多座建筑损毁。据美国地质调查局称,初步测得地震震级为7.3级,震中距离海地首都太子港西部约16公里。北京时间2010年1月21日,海地再次发生里氏6.1级余震,震中距离太子港约60公里,震源深度约10公里。
   太子港所在地区处于环太平洋地震带上,因而地震频发, 曾于1794年、1820年、1888年和2010年四次遭受地震、飓风和战火破坏,城市发展缓慢。

 

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地理自然
  西印度群岛中岛国。位于拉丁美洲加勒比海北部伊斯帕尼奥拉岛(即海地岛)的西半部.加勒比海中的伊斯帕尼奥拉岛(海地岛)西部,面积约27797平方公里。东接多米尼加共和国,南临加勒比海,北濒大西洋,西与古巴和牙买加隔海相望。海岸线长1080多千米。全境75%为山地,仅沿海和沿河 有狭窄平原,海地一词就是印第安语中“多山之国”的意思。拉萨尔山海拔2680米,为全国最高峰。戈纳伊夫岛为全国最大岛屿,面积约207平方千米。最大湖泊为伊坦沙乌马特胡,面积约181 平方千米。阿蒂博尼特河是境内的主要河流,河谷地为海地重 
要农业区。
   北部属热带雨林气候,南部为热带草原气候。各月平均气温在22—28℃间。年降水量约1000毫米,4—6月、8—10月为雨季。多飓风。沿海地区炎热,高原地区平均气温15℃。全国平均气温24-27℃。海地一年分两季:3月至11月相对炎热,12月至2月较为凉爽。不同的气候为植物的生长提供了有利条件。
   海地本地物种资源丰富,另外也是南美巫术的传承之地。

 

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太子港(PORT-AU-PRINCE)是海地共和国的首都及政治、经济、文化中心和第一大港市。位于戈纳夫湾东南岸附近的库尔德萨克平原上。人口约51万。1804年为海地首都。海地工业中心,工业主要有制糖、水泥、纺织、面粉、酿酒、制皂、制药、制鞋、服装等。港口为一天然良港,吞吐量占全国进出口物资的60%~70%。建有国际机场,设有国际航线通加勒比海诸岛,为交通枢纽。

 

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教育
    法律规定7~13岁的儿童享受免费义务教育,64%的学龄儿童可获得小学教育。1999年中学毕业会考参加人数达10.2万。城市成人文盲率为57%,农村则高达85%。全国中小学校近9千所,其中私立学校占85%以上。有海地大学等7所高等学校。

 

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海地共和国地区

太子港 兰贝

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